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Miscellaneous Collections





if H ; 3 :



No. 1789



The present series, entitled SMITHSONIAN MIscELLANEOUS CoL- LECTIONS, is intended to include all the publications issued directly by the Smithsonian Institution in octavo form, excepting the Awn- NUAL, Report to Congress; those in quarto constituting the SmMrTH- SONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE. The quarto series includes memoirs embracing the records of extended original investigations and researches, resulting in what are believed to be new truths and constituting positive additions to the sum of human knowledge. “The octavo series is designed to contain reports on the present state of our knowledge of particular branches of science; instructions for collecting and digesting facts and materials for research; lists and synopses of species of the organic and inorganic world; reports of explorations; aids to bibliographical investigations, etc., generally prepared at the express request of the Institution, and at its expense.

In the SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE, as well as in the SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS, the actual date of the publication of each article is that given on its special title- page or in the Table of Contents of the volume, and not necessarily that of the title of the volume in which it appears.

The Quarterly Issue of the SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS Cor- LECTIONS is designed chiefly to afford a medium for the early pub- lication of the results of researches conducted by thé Smithsonian Institution and its branches, and especially for the publication of reports of a preliminary nature.

CHARLES D. Watcortr, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.


5 * wu i (hs Seer ae


Notes on some Upper Cretaceous Volutide, with Descriptions of New Species and a Revision of the Groups to which they belong. Wut.taM SEAT Eva) An men Clo ShecdmlWanchi WeTOOZ) csc cc's as. cere ss cea ue sce Notes on some Squirrels of the Sciurus hippurus Group, with Descriptions of two New Species. Marcus Warp Lyon, Jr. (Published April IHC) eee ete Sails ee MPA Nel cd ate) ood n ase v a. Sisidis, md bene a ea a wind a's

A New Calamarine Snake from the Philippine Islands. LEoNHARD

STPOTNECERSE GU bliShedmeApill, cae LOOZ eames ae tisicccjescesle cate earces,s es oe Additional Notes on Mexican Plants of the Genus Ribes. J. N. Rosk. En Sive dis cvs IaeelOO Ze) it, c ccle-ert crcuttarhe siento nteteia eo ckertic aes e yore foe wile ee

Morkillia, a new name for the Genus Chitonia, with Description of a New Species. J. N. Rosk and JoskEpH H. ParintEr. (Published May 1, OD ep Reed cessor crckatn, er ecben ay Mees edeils Geaviehstsulenl derctasiece ettentea®. etre slate Giaie’s os

The “Webster” Ruin in Southern Rhodesia, Africa. Enwarp M. ANDREWS. PrAnes tare Chaplished May: I, TOO7 Ns rie ccicavs odke see Acee sceccee a

The Bororé Indians of Matto Grosso, Brazil. W. A. Cook. PLATES Iy-v. GEtiblisired Naty Ml el OZ) er Parise ue Nee ie anticeen ef orelac st mae AIP tad oe ond

Cactus maxonii, a New Cactus from Guatemala. J. N. Rose. Pats vt. Merb leshedehiime else LOOT) pk taaee ees cris bss LOE ee ela

On the Clasping Organs Attaching the Hind to the Fore Wings in Hymen- optera. Dr. LEo WaLTER. PrLates vii-x. (Hodgkins Fund.) (Pub- MiSecen Mee 24me LOOT ry acess ieccoiete es acuta! Gare s sik, «iu Wietam eneeetera nos Brace

Notes on Mammals Coilected at Mt. Rainier, Washington. Marcus Warp EVONEMIR MCE ubushed jumer27nNOOZ) a sicle.ecs.<0s/55-. «eles olen eo a aeieions

The Archaic Monetary Terms of the United States. CHarLtEs A. WHITE. M@istblishtedwyitmero yee lOOR ias sericea cis oe chs ie o.pas' s slate ee ee oe

Description of a Collection of Kootanie Plants from the Great Falls Coal Field of Montana. F. H. Knowtron. Prates xi-xiv. (Published LW EVEISE 7, SHC) een ae roi eR gee Eo cs aera

Notes on a Small Collection of Mammals from the Province of Kan-Su, China. Marcus Warp Lyon, Jr. PLatTEs xv-xvi. (Published July RP MPE GUE PONE Rar ide WR sD IS gi SK ict cv, a: « 5p « «fora. dlei GRRE ook

Descriptions of New Species of Shells, Chiefly Buccinide, from the Dredg- ings of the U. S. S. “Albatross” during 1006, in the Northwestern Pacific, Bering, Okhotsk, and Japanese Seas. Wii.44tAM Harry DAL. PraMISMEC Ply OOD T Nc tortion sieiaics > sc. so os ceca! os.

A New Larch from Alaska. W.F. Wicut. Piate xvi. (Published July FOS), TUR OE)) BySecc Ee eae ie React te <r

The Lumpsucker; its Relationship and Habits. Turopork Git. (Pub- Sea IE a 00a Re Oe | a on 1 rs

New Plants of the Pacific Slope, with some Revisions. CHARLES V. PIPER. GE Opie heteAUPiISt 235-1907.) ....... « «07 eee ue: 2 Re

Contributions to the Study of the Canyon Diablo Meteorites. Grorcr P. Merritt, and Wirt Tasstn. PLates XvuI-xxi. (Published September Py TOO) rons aor ooo 6) oR eR eee nice .00 5 uci ee


105 129




Pack Louis Agassiz. CHartEs Doonrrrte Watcorr. PLate xxi. (Published September 12; 2Q07>) o'sxjaens- ose eres a eccce eCity ete lenges fours a susie ate 216 Terrestrial Isopods of the Family Eubelide, collected in Liberia by Dr. O. F. Cook. Harriet RicHarpson. (Published September 12, 1907.). 219 The Relations of the Chinese to the Philippine Islands. BERTHOLD LAUFER.

(Published. September 13;- 1907.) 020.0% <clejeesc e ance ln leis s = eheieletria ea 248 ING cy 1 ae ee en NE ney oe rr aie tine Leer e ie oS tS Craet > oad to desc 285 Excavations at Casa Grande, Arizona, in 1906-07. J. WALTER FEWKEs.

PLates xxit1-xt. (Published October 25, 1907.)........+sssesebenas 289 Nopalea guatemalensis, a New Cactus from Guatemala. J. N. Rost.

PyATES. xu, xtm ~CPublished October 28,1007.) 5.3. 1. ee eee 330 Pereskiopsis, a New Genus of Cactacee. N. L. Brirron and J. N. Rose.

PLATES xii, xuiv. (Published October 28, 1907.)'... s...-.0+ eee 331 Two New Ferns of the Genus Lindsaea. LuctEN M. UNbERWoop and

WittiamM R. Maxon. (Published October 28, 1907.)...........-..-- 335 Five New Recent Crinoids from the North Pacific Ocean. AUSTIN

Hosarr Grarx... .CPublished: October sao) 1G07,. )<emyaitioe oe ole exter een 337 New Genera of Recent Free Crinoids. Austin Hoparr CriarKk. (Pub-

lishedO@ctober 20. 1Q07:))\2< oa. Sante cee ele cote inicio tela Sele eae 343 The Air-sacs of the Pigeon. Bruno Mt1irer. (Hodgkins Fund.) PLatEs

XEVeXLiKe . Ceublished January. 16,,1G08.)\.. 5). scectee ~<a eee 365 INIGHE SS Cod BOE stad Rok oo he cece, waghig bce rade Satey GSD epee AICTE a een ie ee 415

New and Characteristic Species of Fossil Mollusks from the Oil-bearing Tertiary Formations of Santa Barbara County, California. RALPH ArNoLp. (Published December 13, 1907.) PLATES L-LVIII........... 419

On the Occurrence of Remains of Fossil Cetaceans of the Genus Schizo- delphis in the United States, and on Priscodelphinus (?) crassangu- lum Case. FREDERICK W. TRUE. PLATES 11x-Lx. (Published January BANOS)! ce chs oooh ates BENS Cea aLale ei eoauetey the tw, Sal < eles «9G. 449

The Meteor Crater of Canyon Diablo, Arizona; its History, Origin, and Associated Meteoric Irons. Grorck P. Merritt. PLATES LXI-LXXv. (Pablished Jantary 277008.) 5 Serscinc cies cis ect cisig Dene Sayin acne ee 461

Notes on Gonidea angulata Lea, a Fresh-water Bivalve, with Description of a New Variety. WiaiaM H. Dat. (Published January 28, 1908.) 499

A New Species of Cavolina, with Notes on Other Pteropods. WuiLLiaM H.

DALy a (Lublishediantiarye2S; TOOS) pete meitieae sires eter ener ae 501 A Preliminary Treatment of the Opuntioideae of North America. N. L.

Britton and J. N. Rose. (Published February 20, 1908.)............ 503 Observations on the Mosquitoes of Saskatchewan. FREDERICK KNaB.

(Pablished’ “Febraary,20,. 1908.) «2%. 5. <-.8 2 aoe ae os eee 540

IN GEES dns ie ota’ vee TAS gO 6 OE eRe aie aha ORO la 6 OO ee eee 548

I. nM III.

IV. vi












Page Webster Ruin. Entrance, with Monoliths. The “Curl’.. 36 Webster Ruin from northeast side; from the west........ 4o Webster Ruin. Graves on northwest side. View from the Wiest PENI Me MEL MICEE Shs consis cio na fc Bias aienig eee baw eels 46 Bororo house. Interior of Bororo house................. 50 Bororo woman adorned with feathers. Bororo method of COMMUN VE MINOR SERA A cc ges cis said da alan aclows eos 0%. 52 Cactus maxon, photographed at an interval of 24 hours.. 64 Nin Seo nmiy iM ETLO DECI e asi) aciekaleia ois tere a ssle Si cin wl <)06s 88 Kootanie plants from the Great Falls coal field of Mon- LIL Urine eee irc eee ce Pel een ates deicei cla solid Guveaaie. es eeah eehiayac s 128 Mania sen Omlehcans Stem @ initcern marche eitiais se clenigieate < 138 Coatrantel opesian= Sie Olimame crs. otele oni as cations selec 138 Lariraalaskensts: sp) nove —Alaska larch... .<..¢<cs- «+. 0 174 Cany om biahlosmeteonitessrgctscc de chei. vce Se ase Oia oe 204 CanyoneDiablosmeteonites:. as cece scm.-to dos... os clots clean 207 LL AGNUIRIGS ANSARI VIAN oh ae OE es Ee Bee aire Oo ae 216 Bird’s-eye view of Compound A, Casa Grande............ 292 Ground plan of Compound A, Casa Grande.............. 204 Southwest bunddine..Casa Grandes. sca... aoe. gs gees of 298 Martheasty bididing: “Casa, Grande. 2h). 5 0k i 2s. cae oeae es 300 Compounde Aes Gasan Grand Gua tur gui ciysci sos «telat hens 300 NOt eroomSsn @asae Gia dee ricrt wa thay.) ses. sels cee aeae oxy see 302 Sipaceremonmial rooms, Casa Granded..: se. ..scssmsrosmeee 302 Moriheast. puildine Casa orander silo. a oct sue ve Dee 302 Northeast building and east rooms, Casa Grande......... 304 Font’s room from northeast, Casa Grande............... 306 West wall from northwest. Northwest room from north- iGRis (SESE IN GL The RRs: Ret ae a oe a 306 Compound B from southeast, Casa Grande............... 312 Section of wall of compound five miles east of Casa GETS Sy aah co ys A Oe ae rn rR fares 312 Ground: plan of Compound B, Casa Grande. . oc. 5605 sax 312 Glan-house Avot Adamsville grotp .... 6.0. ee os doe oe bio 318 Sasa) Planets OmMOTd eyed ce ig cicie se «acess Sang ad aimee heels 320 @bjectsetrome Casa Gratide mounds... ..o...6+ acne sem dels 322 Objects from Casa Grande and neighboring mounds...... 322 Ne LA MOR UEGNT NSIS Ute o's a. oso vs hae veda ess eb ae bie 330 PAURC SUT MUSE PESELEE ves. cS. . sauce als es 8 Mee the oa ews 334 PERO MOD ISSO GUTEIIL ti «oe viva o's pine Sohclw ca Oates Oa enews 334 Transverse sections of thorax of pigeon.................. 414 Transverse sections of neck of pigeon. Dorsal aspect of Todt SRN Ges cok ee, OS cw eds cael ee eatin ap leer 414 Anterior diverticulum of interclavicular sac. Ventral and dorsaleaspects. of lung of ipiseomac «sae eee tees 414 Air-sacs on the left side of the pigeon.................... 414 Domcaleavile wat cAThaSAC Sireca, tobe ere.e ins wnsttas ne a seis aoe er. 414













[VOL. 50

Pack Tejon (Eocene) fossil miollusksc. gins ork ai.rentes'. ope eee 448 Knoxville (Cretaceous) and Tejon (Eocene) fossils..... 448 Vaqueros (Lower Miocene): fesstls ote sie re 448 Fernando, (Pliocene): Gasteropoda.>) 22 .rr. ween ee 448 Hernandos (2liocene))= fossil Seana) oes eer eee eee 448 Fernando (Pliocene) Gasteropoda. ..:...~.-.:.see eee 448 Fernando (Pliocene) Pelecypoda and Brachiopoda....... 448 Schizodelplis crassangulum (Case).......0..--..eeeeeees 460 Canyon Diablo. Crater rim from northeast. Crater rim frome SOUCY %. cser eo sean popsicle) e olsheee RE en 461 Canyon Diablo. Outer slope of east rim of crater. Lime- stone boulder on outer slope of crater.................. 403 Canyon ‘Diablo: West rinv of crater... ..: 4.1.6 eee 404 Canyon Diablo. The crater from the northern rim. The erater from thé sSouth. sa ..2/c)o ss cee Aa ee eee 404 Canyon Diablo. Interior wall of crater, looking north- ward. Looking across crater from the north.......... 466 Canyon Diablo: (‘Contour mapyot crater... ins. .:.1s). «ieee 468

Canyon Diablo. Whale rock on west rim.

Grateia Canyon Diablo.


Canyon Diablo. Canyon Diablo. Canyon Diablo. Canyon Diablo.

Dry wash, south side of outer rim. Boulder on west rim of crater.. 470

PARE ret mir AeA ae ota old bibs bo 9.0.0 « 470 Moraine-like hills on northern rim of

Interior walls” of craters. s.r eee 470 Interior of crater, looking south........ 472 Interior of crater, showing south wall... 472 Microstructure of gray sandstone....... GIS

Altered sandstone from shafts inside of

Crater | io! kets As cee Oe Cee ae SPD en eee 478 Typical forms of Canyon Diablo meteoric irons.......... 479 Btched section of Canyons DiablOmtronen erie ieee 482

Canyon Diablo.

Shale=ball inoiisi a-8 ee ee eee 486

VOU. 50 1907






While engaged in the study of the Tertiary fauna of Coos Bay, Oregon, it became necessary for me to investigate the systematic position of certain forms of Volutes which were contained in it. Their relations to certain Upper Cretaceous forms had been assumed and they had even been referred to the same genus. An investiga- tion of the question was made possible by the kindness of Dr. T. W. Stanton, of the U. S. Geological Survey, in whose official province the Cretaceous forms belong and who placed at my disposition for study all the material which he had brought together.?

An examination -of these fossils showed that a larger number of species existed than had been supposed, and that the Upper Cre- taceous seems to have been marked by an efflorescence of related large Volutes in all parts of the world where the fauna of that period has been explored. A comparison of these groups of species with each other and with our American forms, a revision of their systematic arrangement, a description of the new species and the application of new names to those forms which had been described in the literature under names not properly applicable to them, have been attempted in the present paper.

* Published by permission of the Director of the United States Geological Survey.

*I am also under obligations to Dr. J. F. Whiteaves, of the Dominion Geo- logical Survey, and Dr. Ralph Arnold, of the U. S. Geological Survey, for the loan of material and other courtesies.

I (I)


The inception of the Volutidz, Fasciolariide, and ‘Turbinellidee appears to have begun in the Cretaceous from a stock of Proso- branchiate Gastropods apparently also the progenitors of another series in which plaits were not developed on the pillar. I have else- where described the dynamic principles concerned in the develop- ment of plaits in spiral shells of any genus,’ and it is only necessary to recall the fact that the horizontality or obliquity of the plaits is a function of the plane of enrollment of the whorls, more or less modi- fied by the shape of the aperture and canal. Other things being equal, the shell whose whorls are coiled most nearly in the same plane will have the most nearly horizontal plaits.

To small forms which illustrate the inception of plaits upon the pillar, as would synthetic types of the family groups above referred to, Meek gave the name of Piestochilus.2. Another form, called by him Mesorhytis, and still persisting in the deep-sea fauna, is referred by many paleontologists to the genus Mitra, and may be more closely related to the Mitridz than to the group we are discussing.

The forms which appear early, and in which the generic type seems hardly settled into equilibrium, are usually lumped by authors under the inappropriate name of Volutilithes; the true Volu- tilithes having a different development, a membranous instead of a shelly protoconch, and first appearing in the Eocene. The antithetic genus, Plejona (Bolten) Dall, is more closely related to these Cre- taceous types from which it is no doubt descended. The species which may be properly associated with Plejona among these early mutable types are those which have an excavated columella with an anterior heavy plait, behind which may be several smaller and less distinct plications.

The forms which are developing in the direction of the Volutide of the future and which first show the Volutoid characteristics appear in the middle Cretaceous, and it is this line of evolution which this discussion is intended to follow.

‘Am. Naturalist, xxvit1, Nov., 1894, pp. 909-914, figs. 1-3; see also Trans. Wagner Inst., 111., p. 58, 1890, et seq.

? Smithsonian Check list N. Am. Cret. Foss., p. 22, 1864. Since the species of Piestocheilus named by Meek come from high up in the Cretaceous, while the most nearly related American Volutes come from the Pugnellus sandstone (Turonian?), it is not intended to regard the former otherwise than as later representatives of Mid-Cretaceous forms which, through the imperfection of the geological record, are yet unknown to us, but presumably resembled Piestocheilus.


The forms developed somewhat later in all the upper Cretaceous areas which have been explored have a notable family likeness, together with features which in each case lend a certain local facies to the species of each special local fauna. We find also that among the species which make up the group in each fauna are usually re- peated certain types of form, each of which probably corresponds to some special conditions which make it fittest to survive, while each faunal locality probably includes about the same groups of con- ditions each of which impinges upon a particular species or group of species more effectively than on the others. To illustrate the case metaphorically, it seems as if each faunal district resembles a temple containing a number of niches of different shapes, in which the species of each genus or family resident in the district are obliged by the pressure of the environment and the action of natural selec- tion to take their places, those which fail to conform to some one of these protective and formative niches being unable to survive.

Whether the types preserved by these conditions, with their pro- nounced analogies of form and ornament, should be classed by dynamically developed characters, when it is probable that their genetic connections are closer with the local group rather than with their analogues in other districts and exotic groups, is a subject which naturally opens up the whole question of the proper relations between classification and nearness of genetic ties. Those system- atists who claim that degrees of genetic relationship should govern classification, to the exclusion of all other factors, will have no diffi- culty in deciding the question. Others, with perhaps greater appre- ciation of the complexity of organic relations and who believe that classification is a means by which we may obtain an end and not an end in itself, must hesitate longer. Without losing sight of genetic connections in a broad sense, in the present state of science at least, it is more convenient, and not less suggestive to the student, to recog- nize in the system the community of response to the environment at a particular stage of evolution, as well as the more hypothetical connections believed or suspected to conform to the “line” of de- scent. It may even be doubted whether response to the environment is not in many cases the more potent factor in evolutionary progress than. the tendencies inherited from an ancestral reticulum; for it is certain that no organism is of purely, or even potentially, linear . descent for any long series of generations.

The possibility of migration complicates the question somewhat, though in geological horizons believed to be nearly contemporaneous and representing equivalent stages of evolution it is probable that migrations play a very minor part.


Among the features common to the Gastropoda of both the upper Cretaceous and Eocene, one is quite conspicuous. It is the fre- quency with which forms of diverse lineage develop a tendency to produce a coat of enamel over the whole surface of the shell, often very profusely, in species belonging to groups which in the recent fauna have not the habit. As examples, reference may be made to such forms as Volutomorpha, Liopeplum, Liomelon, Athleta, and Psilocochlis, while numerous others will occur to the reader.

We may now proceed to examine the Volutoid population of dif- ferent upper Cretaceous districts, where the invertebrate fauna has been well worked out or is sufficiently known.

The chief districts are situated in India; in the Gosau district of the eastern Alps, and the Aachener chalk of northern Germany ; the Greensand marls of New Jersey, the Ripley group of the Gulf States, the. Pugnellus sandstone at the top of the Benton group in Colorado, and the Chico group of California. These range from the middle (Turonian) to the uppermost Cretaceous.

Dr. Stanton, while disclaiming the practicability of exact correla- tion between the subdivisions of the Cretaceous in the United States and those of foreign countries, is disposed to regard the Colorado, Trichinopoly, Chico, and Gosau horizons as in part representing the Turonian, while Ripley and Aachen correspond to some portion of the Senonian.

In India the fauna of the series known as the Trichinopoly group has been discussed by Sowerby, Forbes, and Stoliczka. The latter author had an unfortunate tendency toward uniting under one spe- cific name very different things, if only they possessed a superficial resemblance—a course more fatal to scientific accuracy than going to the opposite extreme. However, he worked with great industry and erudition and gave good figures of the fossils, so that paleontol- ogists are under serious obligations to him for his work in India. His early review of the Gosau fauna was hasty and insufficient ; it is replete with erroneous conclusions. Zekeli, whom he criticized severely, is—if any confidence is to be placed in the illustrations of his monograph—a far more discriminating author than his critic.: Naturally, in the discussion of these exotic faunas one must assume that the illustrations of a reputable author are at least approximately accurate in depicting the species figured.

The Volutide of the Trichinopoly group, with one or two excep- tions, have a somewhat similar sculpture while varying widely in form. The slender, widely separated spiral ridges are more pro- nounced than the axial sculpture, in proportion to their size the


shells are only moderately thick, the posterior sinus of the aperture is well marked in the adults, and the columellar plaits are small, slender, not crowded, and three or more in number. ‘The character- istics of Volutoderma, which is the most typical of these volutes, include a posterior sinus for the protrusion of a part of the mantle, which in the enameled species (Volutomorpha) serves to distribute the glaze. Judging by recent species, many of which have a similar sinus, the mantle edge as a whole is not extended over the shell except in the genus Zidona. ‘Those authors who have referred members of this group to the Pleurotomide have therefore insuffi- cient basis for that opinion.

Beside the sinus, the small smooth shelly protoconch, the ap- pressed suture, the whorl often excavated above the shoulder, the reticulate sculpture, and the three plaits on the pillar often lagging behind the aperture, are characteristic of most of the species where ever found. In many cases the edge of the outer lip where the spiral ridges terminate is provided with a small denticle corresponding to each ridge, and it is not uncommon to find a ridge of enamel in the wake of the posterior sinus, which forms a sort of fasciole.

Among the types represented are the piruliform, in which the spire is almost involved within the outer whorls and elevated very little above them, while the whorls are rounded and inflated behind. This has been named Ficulopsis by Stoliczka. Its analogue in the Aachen chalk is Ficulomorpha Holzapfel; in the Martinez of Cali- fornia, Retipirula Dall? ; in the Eocene of Gatun, Panama, this type has a successor in Glyptostyla Dall. In these forms there are two to five plaits.

Another type has also a low spire, but with the shoulder keeled or angular, the whorl behind it flattish and the sides of the whorl in front of the keel flattened as in the genus Conus. ‘This is named by Stoliczka Gosavia, and has representative species in the Gosau and Aachen formations and probably one in New Jersey. Accord- ing to Stoliczka and d’Archiac, there is an Eocene species G. dentata (Sowerby) in the Nummulitic of India, which Noetling also reports from the Miocene of Burma.

*This sinus differs in function from that of the Pleurotomidez. In the latter group it allows the protrusion of an elongated tube which carries the fecal matter outside the cavity of the mantle (as in Plewrotomaria) and thus pre- vents fouling the water which has access to the gills. In the Volutide the anus is anterior and its products are ejected more or less laterally, as in the majority of Prosobranchs.

2 Turbinella crassitesta Gabb, Pal. Cal., 1, pl. xxv1, fig. 37, 1860, is the type.


The prevalent type belongs to a section of Volutoderma having a peculiar facies already alluded to, and which we propose to call Rostellinda. Of these there are five species confounded by Stoliczka under one name which belongs to none of them. ‘They are mostly large shells with axial ribs and shouldered whorls, the whorl exca- vated in front of the suture, the sinus near the suture, the axial sculpture feeble, the spiral sculpture stronger on the spire or weaker or obsolete on the last whorl. ‘The species are Volutoderma (Ros- tellinda) stoliczkana Dall' (type); V. (R.) excavata Dall’; V. (R.) tenua Dall?; V. (R.) media Dall*; VY. (R.) teinostoma Dall’? and perhaps lV’. (R. ?) trichinopolitensis Forbes®; and V. (Je.) multistri- ata Stoliczka.’ Besides these, there is a species resembling Caricella Conrad, but which according to Stoliczka has a globular nucleus and a complete layer of enamel over the whole shell. It was described as Voluta pyriformis by Forbes and will form the type of a new genus Liomelon Dall.8 ‘There are one or two other species which probably belong to Volutoderma, but which, owing to their imperfect state, it is more prudent to leave undiscussed.

In addition to the species belonging to the group under discussion, there are a number of forms belonging to the Volutidz of the Indian Cretaceous which, by the peculiarity of their columellar folds and general type of form, are evidently the forerunners of the genus Plejona, which only attains its fully characteristic development in the Eocene, and of Volutocorbis, which has persisted through sub- sequent ages and is represented in the recent fauna by several spe- cies. ‘The anatomical examination of one of these has shown that Volutocorbis is a well characterized genus perfectly distinct from Plejona or Volutilithes, and, in the adult, with a thickened and inter- nally dentate outer lip.

The analogous fauna of the Gosau district among the northeastern Alps was treated by Sowerby and Stoliczka, and monographed by Zekeli. The synonymy of the species has been vastly confused by

1Cret. Gastr. India, Stoliczka, pl. vu, figs. 7 (type) and 6. The names here given by the present writer are new.

* Opus cit., pl. vu, fig. 5.

° Opus cit., pl. vu, fig. 3.

* Opus cit., pl. vit, figs. 9 (type), 4, and 8.

> Opus cit., pl. vil, figs. 2, 2a (type), and fig. 1.

° Opus cit., pl. vi, fig. 6, Scapha gravida Stoliczka.

The figures agree so perfectly that I cannot doubt their identity. The form referred to Forbes’ species by Stoliczka, at any rate, cannot be identical with it.

" Opus cit., pl. vit, figs. 1, 2, 3, very imperfect.

° Opus cit., pl. vi, figs. 9, 9a, Melo pyriformis Stol.


indiscriminate “lumping” of species. The fauna comprises, as well as can be determined from the fine illustrations given by Zekeli, without an opportunity of also consulting the fossils, two’ species of Gosavia, G. gradata Zekeli, and G. squamosa Zekeli, the latter a very coniform species and the type of the genus. There are typical species of Volutoderma; V. perlonga Zekeli (prelonga in the legend to the plate) ; V. fenestrata Muller (non Zekeli), and the less char- acteristic species V. Miillert Dall’ (= fenestrata Zekeli non Miller) and V. (Rostellaca) subsemiplicata Orbigny. The group of short species having a somewhat nassoid aspect, usually with rather numerous axial ribs and feeble spiral sculpture, which I propose to separate sectionally under the name of Rostellana with V. Bronni Zekeli* as type, comprises also V. gasparini Orbigny (acuta Zekeli non Sowerby), V. acuta Sowerby (non Zekeli), V. coxifera and V. cristata Zekeli. This group is also represented in the Pugnellus sandstone of Huerfano Park, Colorado, by allied species.

In the analogous group of forms from Aachen admirably illus- trated by Holzapfel in the Paleontographica, we find a different and much rougher type of sculpture, with nodulation of the intersections, the axial and spiral ridges more nearly equal in strength, the shells smaller, the shoulder less emphasized and the posterior sinus less conspicuous. In the coexisting genus Ficulomarpha we find an ab- sence of axial sculpture, the nucleus is subglobular, the shoulder evanescent, the spire largely involute, giving a pyriform aspect to the shell, which has a wide recurved canal in the adult. The aspect strongly suggests Ficula if it were not for the heavy shell and plaited pillar. This external resemblance has led several authors to regard the species as a plaited precursor of Ficula. But the young shell has a relatively higher spire and straighter canal with the oblique plaits and globular nucleus of the Volutid@, and is not more pyriform than Callipara, which no one doubts belongs to the Volu- tide. In fact, the difference in form is almost entirely, in this case, due to the gradual involution of the spire with age, and the resem- blance to Ficula is purely superficial. This genus retains the pos- terior sinus characteristic of nearly all Mesozoic and many subse- quent Volutide.

A very close ally, probably only sectionally distinct from Ficulo- morpha, is Glyptostyla Dall, described from the Gatun Eocene on the line of the Panama canal. It differs from the Aachen fossil by

* Zekeli, Gosaugebilde, taf. x11, fig. 6. New name. * Zekeli, Op. cit., taf. x11, fig. 9.


its reticulate instead of spiral sculpture, its better differentiated canal, and in having two instead of three columellar plaits. The type, F. (G.) panamensis Dall, is figured in the Transactions of the Wag- ner Institute of Science, volume 111, plate x11, figure 5, 1892.

The Volutoderma of the Aachen chalk are characterized, as above noted, by a quite different type of sculpture from those of India or even of Gosau, not to speak of the United States. They vary con- siderably in form, as do the analogous groups in other regions, but have a distinctly common facies. For these I propose the sectional name Rostellaca, with R. zitteliana Holzapfel as type.t

The fauna also contains the following other species which I refer to the same section: V. (R.) subsemiplicata Orbigny; V. (R.) fenestrata Roemer; V. (R.) gosseleti Holzapfel and V. (R.) holzap- feli Dall,? the last being obviously distinct from V. fenestrata Roe- mer, with which it is united in Holzapfel’s monograph.

Passing over for the moment the Greensand marls of New Jersey, we may consider next the group of species described by Stanton® from the Pugnellus sandstone of Huerfano Park, Colorado, which form probably the oldest assembly of this family yet described from the United States.

In this group the number of species known is not large, and none of them are typical Volutoderma. ‘he list comprises Volutoderma (Rostellinda) dalli Stanton and a varietal or possibly specific form plicatula Dallt; V. ambigua Stanton; V’. (Rostellana?) gracilis Stanton; and V. (Rostellana ?) constricta Dall,®> the latter two being nearly intermediate smooth types.

The Greensand marls of New Jersey contain a large Volutoid fauna, which, unfortunately, is preserved only in the form of in- ternal casts. ‘This forbids very satisfactory identifications specific- ally. Still the impressions distinctly convey the idea that a number of the shells belonged to the genus Volutoderma in the strict sense, while the others, as usual, assume a variable aspect. Altogether there are five or six species of Volutoderma in the lower marls and four species of Volutomorpha Gabb. ‘The latter genus differs from V olutoderma by its sculpture, by having a single strong plait on the columella, and especially by the fact that the outer surface in the adult is covered with a varnish-like enamel. The principal character

* Holzapfel, Paleontographica, Bd. xxx1v, taf. vim, fig. 4a—b.

7 Holzapfel, op. cit., taf. vuit, fig. 6.

? Bull. No. 106, U. S. Geological Survey, 1893, pp. 155-158, pls. XXIII, XXIV. * Stanton, op. cit., pl. xxx1u, fig. 10. New name.

* Stanton, op. cit., pl. xxx1v, fig. 3. New name.


in Gabb’s eyes was the possession of the single strong plait; and his type, an internal cast, upon which the name of V. conradi was be- stowed, exhibited plainly only this character. The others are taken from other species, but which are probably correctly referred to this genus. The middle marl contains two or three species of oluto- derma; the upper marls three, of which one probably may be referred to the subgenus Gosavia.

The upper Cretaceous (Ripley) beds of the Gulf states were more fortunate in the state of preservation of their fossils. In Texas was obtained Volutoderma texana Conrad, upon which Conrad founded his genus Rostellites, a name preoccupied by Fischer since 1806. The later Volutoderma Gabb, is based upon a Californian species. There are three species of this genus in the Ripley formation, one of which is new, and of V’olutomorpha, beside the V. eufaulensis Conrad, there are five very remarkable species yet unpublished. All these are large, brilliantly polished shells.

Some time sincet I described a recent shell under the name of Volutilithes philippiana from off the southwest coast of Chile, in 677 fathoms. It has very much such sculpture as the northern one we have been considering. The nucleus was eroded, but evidently had. not been swollen or conspicuously large. A series of other forms, including some half dozen species, occur in the Santa Cruz Tertiary beds of Chile and Patagonia, which from the similarities of decora- tion seemed at that time likely to belong to the same group as the abyssal recent shell. This was supposed to belong with the Volutoid series having a shelly nucleus, and was so referred by me in a later publication.2 All were tentatively referred to the Volutoid series and associated with Conrad’s Rostellites; but more recent explora- tions in Patagonia have furnished perfect nuclei of several of these fossils, which have been figured by Ortmann,* who shows them to belong to the Caricelloid series (formerly called Scaphelloid), which have membranous and dehiscent protoconchs. It is altogether prob- able that the recent . philippiana Dall is related to the regional fossil forms, and had, before erosion, a Caricelloid tip, in which case it would belong to Adelomelon as finally revised. The question now arises whether the northern Miopleiona is of the same stock, which, if so determined, would place it in a different subfamily from the Volutoderma, which is known to have a small shelly protoconch.

pb rocel).-s. Nat.,Mus!; x11, p. 313, pl. 1, fig. 4, 1880.

* Trans. Wagner Inst. 111, p. 69, 1890.

Ortmann, Princeton Univ. Exp. Patagonia, Iv, p. 234, 1902. cf. pl. xxxv, fig. 4d, and pl. xxxvI, fig. Ic.


Until specimens preserving the nuclear whorls are obtained the de- cision must rest in abeyance.

We now come to the Cretaceous of the Pacific slope, where, in the Chico series, we have the typical species of Volutoderma, V. cali- fornica Dall’; a larger and more robust species, figured and de- scribed by Dr. C. A. White? under the name of Fulguraria gabbi, and V’. (Rostellinda) dilleri White. A fourth species occurs in the Cretaceous of Sucia Island, British Columbia, which I have named V olutoderma suciana.*

This species is most nearly related to V. gabbi White, and not to V. texana (+ navarroénsis) ; it differs from V. gabbi in its more slenderly fusiform shape, its higher and more acute spire, more deli- cate spiral ridges, the more anterior periphery to the last whorl, and in the absence of marked axial ribbing.

I am indebted to Dr. J. F. Whiteaves, of the Dominion Geological Survey, for the opportunity to examine the original specimens from Sucia Island. It may be added that the figure above cited gives an insufficient idea of the strength and disposition of the spiral sculp- ture, the specimen from which it was made having evidently been more or less decorticated.

In the lowest Eocene of the Martinez horizon in California was collected Retipirula crassitesta Gabb, before alluded to, but, with the exception of Ficulomorpha (Glyptostyla) panamensis Dall, from the far south, no relatives of the genus /olutoderma have yet been made known from the Californian or Oregonian Eocene. fetipirula differs from Ficulopsis by having a sculpture reticulate with rather wide in- tervals and strong nodulation at the intersections. It also resembles

*Gabb, Pal. Cal. 1, p. 102, pl. xrx, fig. 56, (1864). New name for . navar- roénsis Gabb, not Shumard.

* Bull. U. S. Geological Survey, No. 51, pl. 1, fig. 1, 1889.

* Bull. U. S. Geological Survey, No. 51 (as Scobinella dilleri), pl. tv, figs. Toes

* Whiteaves, in Mesozoic Fossils, Geol. Survey of Canada, vol. I, part 1, 1879, p. 117, pl. xv, figs. 3, 3a, under the name of Fulguraria navarroénsis Shumard, the true navarroénsis being identified with Volutoderma texana Conrad, a sufficiently distinct species.

The following notes will indicate the distinctions:

V. suciana has seven whorls; three strong plaits, of which the anterior is weakest ; an appressed suture; an evident posterior sinus; and sculpture con- sisting of four simple spirals in front of the suture; then two nodulous spirals, a peripheral nodulous spiral with wider interspaces on each side of it; then eleven more or less nodulous spirals, followed by two faint simple ones on the canal. The axial ribbing found in several other species is obsolete or absent. Length 120; spire behind the posterior sinus 44; max. diam. 45 mm.


Glyptostyla and Miopleiona in having two strong plaits, rather than four or five feeble ones, as in Ficulopsis and its associates, Gosavia and Rostellinda. In each case the presumption is that the species is an offshoot from a local group with more elevated spire and not genetically connected with its exotic analogue.

In the Oligocene concretions from the Astoria, Oregon, beds below the Miocene, the United States exploring expedition under Wilkes in 1841 collected a specimen of a species belonging to a genus related to Volutoderma which was later described by Conrad under the name of Rostellaria indurata. It was associated with Aturia and other Oligocene types. The original specimen is an internal cast retaining only small fragments of the shell. With more material, it appears that the species is common to the Oligocene of Washington, and is represented in the Miocene and Pliocene of Oregon and California by a related but distinct species. For these the name Miopleiona is proposed, and it is not absolutely impossible that deep-sea dredgings off the coast may reveal in the future a recent representative.

The Eocene connecting link between the Cretaceous Volutoderma and the Oligocene representative, on the Pacific coast, is not yet known; but recent investigation by Dr. Ralph Arnold, of the U. 5. Geological Survey, under the writer’s direction, have fortunately discovered specimens of Conrad’s J”. indurata which retain portions of- the outer surface. From these we learn that this species was characterized by slender, elongated form, long strap-like axial ribs, with slightly wider interspaces, which reach nearly to the base of the whorls (in a specimen 70 mm. long), while the whole surface is sculptured by fine, close, threadlike, spiral striations. The plaits are of the type of Volutomorpha and not like those of Volutoderma, and the sutural constriction is obsolete. The genus continues into the Miocene, where it appears in a species in which the presutural con- striction (but not the posterior sinus) has vanished, though the suture is still slightly appressed ; the spire is shorter and blunter and the whole form less attenuated. The axial sculpture is still of slen- der, elongated ribs, but there is no spiral sculpture. The columellar plaits are unchanged. This will take the name of MW. oregonensis.

Having described the origin and distribution of this interesting group of Volutacea, we may close the discussion with a tabular ex- hibit of the groups arranged to show the recurrence of specialized types of form in successive horizons, and with descriptions of the new Cretaceous species previously alluded to.

In the following table, after the Cretaceous, no attempt has been made to include groups not represented in America (unless Athleta


be so regarded), nor is the arrangement intended tu be systematic. It is intended rather to illustrate the feature referred to earlier in this paper, viz., the recurrence of similar types of form in successive ages or horizons; or, in widely separated regions in the same age, without regard to close genetic connection. The subordinate sections of V olutoderma are omitted here, but will be found elsewhere.

The year indicates the date of publication of the name following, to which is added the general region and the name of the typical species. When a group-name recurs in the table the type species is mentioned only in connection with the earliest appearance of the group, which, however, may have a type species belonging to a later horizon.

The names preceded by an asterisk belong to the Caricellinz, those without the asterisk to the Volutinz. All are grouped with refer- ence to external forms.